Wednesday, February 11, 2009

BIO310 - Quiz 3

(1)Define Osmoregulation (2Marks) ; (2) The function of Anti-diuresis hormone (ADH) (2 Marks)

43 comments:

Nie said...

(1)Define Osmoregulation
-Osmoregulation is the control of the levels of water and mineral salts in the blood. It is a homeostatic mechanism.

(2) The function of Anti-diuresis hormone (ADH)
-ADH stimulates the kidney to reabsorb water. The more ADH there is in the blood the harder the kidney works to reabsorb water.

sinchan boy said...

Muhd sufri salimun(2006139345)

1)Define Osmoregulation
-Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content; that is it keeps the body's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated.
(2) The function of Anti-diuresis hormone (ADH):
a)ADH stimulates the kidney to reabsorb water. The more ADH there is in the blood the harder the kidney works to reabsorb water.

b)increases the permeability to water of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules in the nephrons of kidneys and thus allows water reabsorption and excretion of a smaller volume of concentrated urine - antidiuresis.

Marysia said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Marysia said...

Name: Marysia J.Booh
Matrix Num.: 2006139329


(1)Define Osmoregulation (2Marks)
Osmoregulation is the control of the levels of water and mineral salts in the blood. It is a homeostatic mechanism where the process by which the osmotic process of the blood and tissue fluids is kept constant.
(2) The function of Anti-diuresis hormone (ADH) (2 Marks)
To regulate the body's retention of water; it is released when the body is dehydrated and causes the kidneys to conserve water, thus concentrating the urine, and reducing urine volume. In high concentrations, it also raises blood pressure by inducing moderate vasoconstriction. In addition, it has a variety of neurological effects on the brain, having been found, for example, to influence pair-bonding in voles.

Marysia said...
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Marysia said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Marysia said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
asy_syuura said...

ASYSYUURA ADYTIA BINTI PATAR
2006147061

(1)DEFINE OSMOREGULATION
Osmoregulation is the control of the levels of water and mineral salts in the blood. It is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content that is it keeps the body's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated.

(2)FUNCTION OF ADH
ADH stimulates conservation of water by the kidneys. It regulates the body's retention of water; it is released when the body is dehydrated and causes the kidneys to conserve water, thus concentrating the urine, and reducing urine volume. In high concentrations, it also raises blood pressure by inducing moderate vasoconstriction. In addition, it has a variety of neurological effects on the brain, having been found, for example, to influence pair-bonding in voles.

Jay Denis said...

VIJAY GOVINDAN DENIS ESWAR
2006111273

(1) DEFINE OSMOREGULATION
Osmoregulation is one of the major processes by which animals maintain homeostasis of fluids. "Osmoregulation is the active regulation of osmotic pressure of body fluids to keep them from becoming too dilute or too concentrated". Animals in all environments (aquatic and terrestrial) must maintain the right concentration of solutes and amount of water in their body fluids; this involves excretion: getting rid of metabolic wastes and other substances such as hormones which would be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the blood via organs such as the skin and the kidneys; keeping the water and dissolved solutes in balanced is referred to as osmoregulation.

(2) THE FUNCTION OF ADH (Anti-diuretic hormone)
Antidiuretic hormone, polypeptide hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland . Its principal action is to regulate the amount of water excreted by the kidneys. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), known also as vasopressin, causes the kidneys to resorb water directly from the renal tubules, thus concentrating the salts and waste products in the liquid, which will eventually become urine. ADH secretion by the pituitary is regulated by neural connections from the hypothalamus, which is believed to monitor either the volume of blood passing through it or the concentration of water in the blood. Dehydration or body stress will raise ADH secretion and water will be retained. Alcohol inhibits ADH secretion. Failure of the pituitary to produce ADH results in diabetes insipidus. In pharmacological doses ADH acts as a vasoconstrictor.

Jessey said...

Name:Jessey Angat
Number Matrix:2006147045
1)Define osmoregulation
-The process by which cells and simple organisms maintain fluid and electrolyte balance with their surroundings.It keeps the body's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated.
2)The function of Anti-diuresis hormone(ADH)
-Increases the water permeability in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct, which allows more water to be reabsorbed from the filtrate into the peritubular capillaries, decreasing the blood osmolarity back toward normal.If the blood osmolarity is low, ADH secretion is inhibited, water permeability decreases, and a large volume of dilute urine is exreted.

Jessey said...

CLEANING UP: URINARY SYSTEM
URINE-
-Body’s primary waste product.
Release of urine - final step of all metabolism.
The waste product of metabolism – the conversion of fuel to energy used in body – go back into the bloodstream and are filtered out and then the urinary system removes them out.
ANATOMY
TAKING OUT THE TRASH; THE KIDNEYS

-The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about the size of your fists.
They are near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage.
The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons – miroscopic unit that filters blood & creates urine.
Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule.
Urea, together with water & other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney.

TRAVELLING YOUR URETERS
-Ureters – tubes that transport the urine created in each kidney to the bladder.
Made up of three layers ; an outer covering, a muscular layer, & a mucuos layer lining the tube’s inside.
The muscular layer contracts in waves of peristalsis – moves urine from kidney to the bladder

STORING URINE IN YOUR BLADDER
-Holding tank – a hollow sac into which urine is deposited from the kidneys through the ureters
Made up of an outer protective membrane, several layers of muscles arranged in different directions, & an inner muscolar layer.
The muscle layers allow the bladder to expand and contract depending on how much urine inside it.
Maximum amount of urine that it can hold – 600 ml

EXPELLING URINE OUT YOUR URETHRA
-Urethra – tube that carries urine from bladder to an opening (orificea) of the body during – micturition process
Females – length;3.8 cm & it ends at the urethral orifice in the anterior wall of the vagina between the clitoris & the vaginak orifice.
Males – lentgh;20 cm & runs down through the prostate gland and the penis, which has an opening on the tip called the urethral meatus.

KIDNEY’S FUNCTION
1) Maintaining homeostasis
Maintaining the proper balance between the salt & water content of your blood.
Maintaining the proper Ph (acid-base) level of the blood


2) Balancing acts
Water – lost from your body when your urine is diluted, and your body conserves water when your urine is concentrated.
Kidneys – regulate whether water your body releases or conserves water.
3)Monitoring your blood pressure
Kidneys – use the processes of tubular secretion & tubular reabsorption – remove and replace salts & water from your blood.

4) Regulating your pH
Detect the ph of your body;if too low – acidic- amino acid glutamine is broken down.
Metabolism of glutamine – ammonia – transported into the filtrate that become the concentrated urine, sodium ions move back into the bloodstream & continue buffer.

DISEASES & DISORDER
BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERLASIA (BPH)
-Condition in men that affects the prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system.
BPH - an enlargement of the prostate gland that can interfere with urinary function in older men - causes blockage by squeezing the urethra, which can make it difficult to urinate.
Men with BPH frequently have other bladder symptoms including an increase in frequency of bladder emptying both during the day and at night .

KIDNEY STONES
-Commonly used to refer to stones, or calculi, in the urinary system.
Stones form in the kidneys and may be found anywhere in the urinary system - vary in size.
Some stones cause great pain while others cause very little.
The aim of treatment is to remove the stones, prevent infection, and prevent recurrence - both nonsurgical and surgical treatments are used.
Kidney stones affect men more often than women.
PROSTATITIS
Inflammation of the prostate gland that results in urinary frequency & urgency, burning or painful urination, a condition called dysuria, and pain in the lower back and genital area, among other symptoms.
In some cases - prostatitis is caused by bacterial infection and can be treated with antibiotics.
More common forms of prostatitis are not associated with any known infecting organism.
Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating the nonbacterial forms of prostatitis.

PROTEINURIA
-The presence of abnormal amounts of protein in the urine.
Healthy kidneys take wastes out of the blood but leave in protein.
Protein in the urine does not cause a problem by itself - but it may be a sign that your kidneys are not working properly.

URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (UTIs)
-Caused by bacteria in the urinary tract.
Women get UTIs more often than men.
UTIs are treated with antibiotics.
Drinking lots of fluids also helps by flushing out the bacteria.

URINARY INCONTINENCE
-Loss of bladder control, is the involuntary passage of urine
There are many causes & types of incontinence, & many treatment options.
Treatments range from simple exercises to surgery.
Women are affected by urinary incontinence more often than men.

URINARY RETENTION
-Common urological problem with many possible causes.
Normally, urination can be initiated voluntarily and the bladder empties completely.
Urinary retention is the abnormal holding of urine in the bladder. Acute urinary retention - the sudden inability to urinate, causing pain and discomfort.
Causes can include an obstruction in the urinary system, stress, or neurologic problems.
Chronic urinary retention refers to the persistent presence of urine left in the bladder after incomplete emptying. Common causes of chronic urinary retention are bladder muscle failure, nerve damage, or obstructions in the urinary tract.
Treatment for urinary retention depends on the cause.

RENAL(KIDNEY) FAILURE
-Kidneys are not able to regulate water & chemicals in the body or remove waste products from your blood.
Acute renal failure (ARF) - is the sudden onset of kidney failure.
This condition can be caused by an accident that injures the kidneys, loss of a lot of blood, or some drugs or poisons.
ARF may lead to permanent loss of kidney function - but if the kidneys are not seriously damaged, they may recover.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the gradual reduction of kidney function that may lead to permanent kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
You may go several years without knowing you have CKD.
THANK YOU

SoulBreaker said...

Name: Jeremy Jais
Matrix No.: 2006147065

(1)Osmoregulation definition
-in biology, osmoregulation is define as the maintenance by an organism of an internal balance between water and dissolved materials regardless of environmental conditions.

(2)ADH function
-ADH function is to causes the kidneys to resorb water directly from the renal tubules, thus concentrating the salts and waste products in the liquid, which will eventually become urine.

jumardi_alkhawarizmi88 said...

JUMARDI ABU BAKAR
2006111277

1. Define osmoregulation ( 2 marks )
Homeostatic process that show how animals regulate solute concentrations and balance the gain and loss of water. It also controlled movement of solute between internal fluids and the eternal environment

2. the function of anti-dueresis hormone (ADH) (2 marks)
a. Prevent wide swings in water balance
b. Helping the body avoid dehydration and water overload
c. At high concentration, ADH causes vasoconstriction, primarily of the visceral blood vessels, a response that indicates targeting of different receptor found on vascular smooth muscle.

Putri Edha said...

Name: Putri Edha binti Edih
Matrix number: 2006139283
1.Define osmoregulation (2marks)
Osmoregulation is defined as the active regulation of osmotic pressure of body fluids so that homeostasis is maintained. In other words it is the process by which the osmotic pressure of the blood and tissue fluids is kept constant from becoming too dilute or too concentrated.

2.The function of Anti Diuresis hormone (ADH) (2marks)
-An Antidiuretic is any chemical substance that decreases urine production. The principal function of Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is its effect on urine volume.
-ADH increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water, so that more water is reabsorbed.
-ADH causes the kidneys to remove water from fluid that will become urine and return it to the bloodstream, thus decreasing urine volume (antidiuresis).
-ADH can also raise blood pressure by bringing about constriction of arterioles. If there is a severe loss of blood volume due to hemorrhage, ADH output increases.
-ADH decreases the rate at which perspiration is produced during dehydration.

mohdfarhan said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Stefpenny Eric said...

Stefpenny Eric Sungkit
2006148195
BIO 310 Quiz 3

Question 1:Define Osmoregulation
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content; that is it keeps the body's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated.

Question 2:The function of Anti-diuresis hormone (ADH)
1. To regulate the body's retention of water; it is released when the body is dehydrated and causes the kidneys to conserve water, thus concentrating the urine, and reducing urine volume.
2. In high concentrations, it also raises blood pressure by inducing moderate vasoconstriction.
3. In addition, it has a variety of neurological effects on the brain, having been found, for example, to influence pair-bonding in voles.




RESPIRATION:
ADJUSTMENTS DURING EXERCISE AND AT HIGH ALTITUDE
Presented by:
Stefpenny Eric Sungkit
2006148195

Respiration During Exercise
 At rest, expiration depends primarily on the elastic recoil of the lungs and chest wall, with minimal recruitment of abdominal muscles.
 However, during heavy exercise the expiratory period is shortened markedly, and recruitment of expiratory muscles may be needed for adequate lung emptying and maintenance of the end-expiratory lung volume (EELV).
 Working muscles consume tremendous amounts of 0xygen and produce large amounts of Carbon dioxide.
 Indeed, increases in end-expiratory oesophageal and gastric pressures have been reported during heavy exercise in humans, suggesting that expiratory muscle activity increases under these conditions (Henke et al. 1988).


WHAT IS HIGH ALTITUDE?
 Altitude is defined on the following scale High (8,000 - 12,000 feet [2,438 - 3,658 meters]), Very High (12,000 - 18,000 feet [3,658 - 5,487 meters]), and Extremely High (18,000+ feet [5,500+ meters]).
 Since few people have been to such altitudes, it is hard to know who may be affected. Some people get it and some people don't, and some people are more susceptible than others. Most people can go up to 8,000 feet (2,438 meters) with minimal effect.
 If you haven't been to high altitude before, it's important to be cautious. If you have been at that altitude before with no problem, you can probably return to that altitude without problems as long as you are properly acclimatized.

WHAT CAUSES ALTITUDE ILLNESSES?
 The concentration of oxygen at sea level is about 21% and the barometric pressure averages 760 mmHg.
 As altitude increases, the concentration remains the same but the number of oxygen molecules per breath is reduced.
 At 12,000 feet (3,658 meters) the barometric pressure is only 483 mmHg, so there are roughly 40% fewer oxygen molecules per breath.
 In order to properly oxygenate the body, your breathing rate (even while at rest) has to increase.






EFFECTS
 In addition, high altitude and lower air pressure causes fluid to leak from the capillaries which can cause fluid build-up in both the lungs and the brain.
 Suffer nausea, and loss of appetite due to loss of carbon dioxide.
 Less hemoglobin saturation level.
 Continuing to higher altitudes without proper acclimatization can lead to potentially serious, even life-threatening illnesses.


PREVENTION OF ALTITUDE ILLNESSES:
 Start below 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) and walk up.

If you do fly or drive, do not over-exert yourself or move higher for the first 24 hours.

If you go above 10,000 feet (3,048 meters), only increase your altitude by 1,000 feet (305 meters) per day and for every 3,000 feet (915 meters) of elevation gained, take a rest day.
 "Climb High and sleep low." This is the maxim used by climbers. You can climb more than 1,000 feet (305 meters) in a day as long as you come back down and sleep at a lower altitude.

If you begin to show symptoms of moderate altitude illness, don't go higher until symptoms decrease (& Don't go up until symptoms go down").

If symptoms increase, go down, down, down! Keep in mind that different people will acclimatize at different rates.
 Make sure all of your party is properly acclimatized before going higher.
 Stay properly hydrated. Acclimatization is often accompanied by fluid loss, so you need to drink lots of fluids to remain properly hydrated (at least 3-4 quarts per day). Urine output should be clear.

Take it easy; don't over-exert yourself when you first get up to altitude. Light activity during the day is better than sleeping because respiration decreases during sleep.
 Avoid tobacco and alcohol and other depressant drugs including, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and sleeping pills.
 These depressants further decrease the respiratory drive during sleep resulting in a worsening of the symptoms.
Eat a high carbohydrate diet (more than 70% of your calories from carbohydrates) while at altitude.
 The acclimatization process is inhibited by dehydration, over-exertion, and alcohol and other depressant drugs.

m@nn said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
m@nn said...

Name: Usman Bin Saharun
matrix no: 2006139317

(1)Define Osmoregulation
> Osmoregulation is regulation of water and ion concentrations in the body. Keeping this regulation precise is critical in maintaining life in a cell. Balance of water and ions is partly linked to excretion, the removal of metabolic wastes from the body.

(2) The function of Anti-diuresis hormone (ADH)
> Anti-diuresis hormone (ADH) also known as vasopressin, where it has an antidiuretic action that prevents the production of dilute urine (and so is antidiuretic. It also can stimulate contraction of arteries and capillaries.

kadim said...

MUHAMMAD KADIM (2006147043)
Definition Osmoregulation
maintainance of optimal osmotic pressure in the body. The Examples,
Osmoregulation includes the maintenance of a balance between water and solute.

The function of Anti-diuresis hormone (ADH)
One of the most important roles of AVP is to regulate the body's retention of water; it is released when the body is dehydrated and causes the kidneys to conserve water, thus concentrating the urine, and reducing urine volume. It also raises blood pressure by inducing moderate vasoconstriction. In addition, it has a variety of neurological effects on the brain, having been found, for example, to influence pair-bonding in voles

bibi aishaiahjan said...

BiBi Aisaiahjan Salamat
Matrix :2006147047

Definition Osmoregulation
Maintenance of an optimal, constant osmotic pressure in the body of a living organism.
The function of Anti-diuresis hormone (ADH)
• To regulate the body's retention of water; it is released when the body is dehydrated and causes the kidneys to conserve water, thus concentrating the urine, and reducing urine volume.
• It also raises blood pressure by inducing moderate vasoconstriction.
• It has a variety of neurological effects on the brain, having been found, for example, to influence pair-bonding in voles.

Elda said...

Elda Konsaga
2006139379


1.DEFINE OSMOREGULATION

Osmoregulation is the physiological processes that an organism uses to maintain water balance; that is, to compensate for water loss, avoid excess water gain, and maintain the proper osmotic concentration (osmolarity) of the body fluids. Based largely on controlled movement of solutes between internal fluids and the external environment.

2. FUNCTION OF ANTI DIURESIS
HORMONE (ADH).

• Stimulates reabsorption of water by the kidneys and thus control the concentration of body fluids.
• Acts on the kidneys, increasing water rentation and thus decreasing urine volume.
• Affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules.
• Antidiuretic hormone causes kidneys to retain water and, along with aldosterone, helps control blood pressure.

Deborah said...

(1)Define Osmoregulation
-Osmoregulation is the mechanism of a constant internal solute concentration by an organism, regardless of the environment in which it lives.
-It is also a mechanism by which the balance of water and dissolved solutes is regulated.

(2)The function of Antidiuretic hormone.
-It control the reabsorption of water in distal tubule and loop of henle, so that urea secreted is highly concentrated.

Anjula said...

Name: Anjula Majadul(2006139333)

1) Define osmoregulation (2 marks)

-Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content; that is it keeps the body's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis. The higher the osmotic pressure of a solution the more water wants to go into the solution. Pressure must be exerted on the hypertonic side of a selectively permeable membrane to prevent diffusion of water by osmosis from the side containing pure water.
In mammals, loss of water by evaporation is counteracted by increased intake and by mechanisms in the kidneys that enhance the rate at which water is reabsorbed into the blood before urine production. Both these responses are mediated by hormones, primarily those of the adrenal cortex.

2)Function of ADH (2 marks)

To conserve body water by reducing the loss of water in urine. A diuretic is an agent that increases the rate of urine formation. Injection of small amounts of antidiuretic hormone into a person or animal results in antidiuresis or decreased formation of urine, and the hormone was named for this effect.
Antidiuretic hormone stimulates water reabsorbtion by stimulating insertion of "water channels" or aquaporins into the membranes of kidney tubules. These channels transport solute-free water through tubular cells and back into blood, leading to a decrease in plasma osmolarity and an increase osmolarity of urine.

mohdfarhan said...

Name: Mohd.Farhan Bin Matali
Matrix No.: 2006111279
1. Define osmoregulation
Osmoregulation can be defined as:
a) The control of water balance.
b) The active regulation of the osmotic pressure of body fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content that is it keeps the body from becoming too dilute or too concentrated.
c) Maintenance of an optimal, constant osmotic pressure in the body of a living organism.
d) The regulation of water potential in an organism.

2. Function of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) are:
a) To regulate the body's retention of water.
b) To conserve body water by reducing the loss of water in urine.
c) Antidiuretic hormone stimulates water reabsorbtion by stimulating insertion of "water channels" or aquaporins into the membranes of kidney tubules.
d) Increasing water retention and thus decreasing urine volume.
e) Helps regulate the osmolarity of the blood.
f) Reduces urine volume and helps prevent further increase of blood osmolarity above the set point.

jane said...

(2006139385)

(1) Define Osmoregulation :

- Osmoregulation is the control of the levels of water and mineral salts in the blood.
- It is a homeostatic mechanism.
- Maintenance of an optimal, constant osmotic pressure in the body of a living organism.
- is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content; that is it keeps the body's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated.


(2) The function of Anti-diuresis hormone (ADH) :
- The purpose of ADH is to control the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. Water is continually being taken into the body in food and drink, as well as being produced by chemical reactions in cells. Water is also continually lost in urine, sweat, feces, and in the breath as water vapor.

- ADH release helps maintain the optimum amount of water in the body when there is an increase in the concentration of the blood serum or a decrease in blood volume. Physical stress, surgery, and high levels of anxiety can also stimulate ADH.
- ADH stimulates the kidney to reabsorb water. The more ADH there is in the blood the harder the kidney works to reabsorb water.

m@nn said...

name: mohd Shukree b. Jafri Sham
no. matrik 2006291267
1.-The maintenance of a constant internal solute concentration by an organism, regardless of environment in which it lives.
-Mechanism by which the balance of water and dissolved solutes is regulated.
2.) – released by the pituitary gland in response to an increase in osmotic concentration of the blood.
- ADH increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water.

icca said...

Frederica binti Gimpeh
(2006139319)

1. Define osmoregulation?
How organisms regulate solute concentrations and balance the gain and loss of water.

2. The function of anti-diuresis hormone.
A hormone produced in the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary. It promotes water retentation by the kidney as part of an elaborate feedbackscheme that helps regulate the osmolarity of the blood.

terans said...

Terans thadeus
2006111055

1. Define osmoregulation?
osmoregulation is The regulation of water potential in an organism. Over many years, different species have developed evolutionary [[adaptations in relation to their environment due to the fact that any organism will always 'want' to have an ideal water concentration in its cells.Essentially, osmoregulation works around the natural forces of concentration gradients and water potential. The body will initiate a variety of countermeasures that re-navigate the flow of water around our body and either promote water retention or promote the secretion of water, depending on what environment the organism in question is situated in.

2. Function of ADH hormone?

a).hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules .

b.The primary effect of ADH is to limit the amount of water being lost in urine, by increasing the amount of water being reabsorbed into the blood. The ADH targets the cells of the tubules and collecting ducts, which causes an increase of permeability of the cell surfaces, where the water then leaves the renal tubules by means of osmosis.
With more fluid being reabsorbed, the blood volume increases while the solutes concentration becomes more diluted.

fiffy said...

BIO310

WHAT IS OSMOREGULATION?
 Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content; that is it keeps the body's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis. The higher the osmotic pressure of a solution the more water wants to go into the solution. Pressure must be exerted on the hypertonic side of a selectively-permeable membrane to prevent diffusion of water by osmosis from the side containing pure water.
 Besides that, osmoregulation is the control of the levels of water and mineral salts in the blood. It is a homeostatic mechanism. There are three important homeostatic mechanisms: osmoregulation, thermoregulation and regulation of blood sugar levels. Homeostasis is important because it results in our cells being bathed in tissue fluid which has the correct amount of water, mineral salts, glucose and temperature.
WHAT IS ADH?
 Is a relatively small (peptide) molecule that is released by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain after being made nearby (in the hypothalamus). ADH has an antidiuretic action that prevents the production of dilute urine (and so is antidiuretic).
 Besides that, ADH also means that a hormone stored in the posterior pituitary gland in the brain. It is the primary regulator of body water. ADH acts on the kidneys to increase total body water. This decreases the plasma concentration, increasing blood volume and increasing blood pressure.The release of ADH is controlled by cells, called osmoreceptors and baroreceptors. Osmoreceptors are specialized areas in the hypothalamus (an area in the brain). These cells sense the concentration of particles in the blood. When the concentration is high, the pituitary releases more ADH. This stimulates retention of water to dilute the body fluids. When the concentration is low, the pituitary releases less ADH. Baroreceptors are specialized areas in the heart that sense blood volume and blood pressure. The heart signals the pituitary to release more ADH when blood volume or blood pressure are low and less when they are high.

maslya said...

Dayang Masliah bt. Rashid
2006139377

Osmoregulation; The active regulation of the osmotic pressure of body fluids so that they do not become excessively dilute or excessively concentrated. In other words, osmoregulation is the process by which organisms control the concentration of water and salt in the body so that their body fluids do not become too dilute or too concentrated. Excretion is the process of ridding the body of metabolic waste. The most obvious osmoregulation process that applies is on kidney. For example, the freshwater fishes live in hypertonic medium and water continuously enters the body. Thus salts diffuse out. These fishes excrete large quantities of dilute urine and actively transport salts in through the gills.

Functions of ADH; Antidiuretic hormone or ADH is produced in the hypothalamus but is stored in the posterior pituitary and released as needed. A thirst enter in the hypothalamus also response to dehydration, stimulating an increase in fluid intake. ADH makes the collecting ducts more permeable to water, so that more water is reabsorbed. As a result, a small volume of concentrated urine is produced. ADH acts on aquaporin-2, a membrane protein that forms gated water channels in the wall of collecting ducts. These channels allow water to pass rapidly through the plasma membrane. In addition, ADH also decrease water excretion.

maslya said...

Azdrina Adan
2006139311

1) Osmoregulation is the process that maintains homeostasis of body fluids by keeping them from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. For example, the marine fishes that live in a hypertonic medium, loses water by osmosis. They gain salts from the seawater they drink and by diffusion. To compensate the fish drinks water, excretes the salts, and produces a small volume of urine.

2)When body needs to conserve water, the posterior pituitary gland increases its release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The pituitary gland response to an increase in osmotic concentration of the blood (caused by dehydration). ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water. As a result, more water is reabsorbed and only a small volume of urine is produced.

maslya said...

Nur Hayatie bt. Sarjuni
2006139343

a) Osmoregulation is a process by which organisms control the concentration of water and salt so that their body fluids do not become too dilute or too concentrated. It is the active regulation of osmotic pressure of body fluids so that body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis is maintained. Some of the processes related to osmoregulation are secretion of sweat on skin surface and excretion of nitrogenous wastes. For example, in the cartilaginous fishes, the shark kidney reabsorbs urea in high enough concentration that its tissues become hypertonic to the surrounding medium. As a result, water enters the shark by osmosis and the shark excretes a large quantity of dilute urine.


b) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is a hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of pituitary gland, which controls the rate of water reabsorption by the kidney. The posterior pituitary gland increases release of ADH when the body needs to conserve water. Then, the pituitary gland response to an increase in osmtic concentration of the blood (caused by dehydration). Thus, 1) ADH increases the permeability of collecting ducts to water, thus 2) increasing reabsorption of water and 3)decreasing water excretion (only small volume of urine produced).

maslya said...

Sir, (for your consideration)
We are having some dificculties on submitting to this blog. 1)language that came off, 2) creating gmail account n blogger account. Thus we are using one person's blogger to post answers to catch time.

TQ

ansforedu87 said...

Ansari Ahmad (2006147079)

01. Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content; that is it keeps the body's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated.

02. ADH stimulates conservation of water by the kidneys.

EisZ_UnGuViOLeT said...

1) Definition of Osmoregulation

Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content that is it keeps the body's fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.


2)What is function of ADH

ADH function is stimulates conservation of water by the kidneys. The single most important effect of antidiuretic hormone is to conserve body water by reducing the loss of water in urine. A diuretic is an agent that increases the rate of urine formation. Injection of small amounts of antidiuretic hormone into a person or animal results in antidiuresis or decreased formation of urine, and the hormone was named for this effect.

EisZ_UnGuViOLeT said...

Name: Isfazira binti Ismail
Matrix No: 2006147049

EisZ_UnGuViOLeT said...

Asalamualaikum Sir...
Sir km lum dpt tjuk presentation lg, mcm na 2?

icca said...

Frederica binti Gimpeh
(2006139319)

Presentation

MECHANISM OF URINE FORMATION

Urine is formed as a result of a) filtration of plasma in the glomeruli (= Glomerular filtration), b) reabsorption and c) secretion processes in the renal tubules.
Normally, the Glomerular capillary bed receives about 650 ml plasma / minute, of which only 125 ml is filtered into Glomerular (Bowman) capsules while the remaining 525 ml pass to the pertubular capillaries (PTC).
Such Glomerular filtrate (= primary urine) contains all plasma constituents Wanted and unwanted) except most plasma proteins which can not be filtered because their high molecular weight and electric charges that surrounding some of them (albumin).

Mechanism of urine formation (continued)
1- Tubular reabsorption; is the transport of substances (mainly the essential substances) from the lumen of the renal tubules to the blood in the PTC.
2- Tubular secretion; is mostly an active process by which active substances are transported from tubular epithelial cells (e.g. H+ & NH3) or blood of PTC into tubular into tubular fluid (e.g. creatinine).

Forces that determine the glomerular filtration

Filtration force
The glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure (55 mmHg).
Reabsorption forces:
Glomerular (Bowman) capsule hydrostatic pressure (15 mmHg).
The osmotic pressure of plasma proteins in Glomerular capillaries (30 mmHg).
☻The net filtration force = 55 – (15 + 30) = 10 mmHg.
So, 10 mmHg net filtration pressures of the renal glomeruli is responsible for filtration of 125 ml plasma out of 650 ml passed through renal Glomerular bed per minute into Bowman's capsules.

Hydrostatic pressure of blood forces substances through the glomerular capilarry.
The osmotic pressure of plasma in the glomerulus and the hydrostatic pressure inside the glomerular capsule influence movement of the filtrate.
Net filtration pressure – the net pressure forcing the substances out of the glomerulus.

Factors that influence the glomerular filtration rate. (GFR)

1- Renal blood flow (RBF); GFR is directly proportionate with GFR.
2- The glomerular capillary pressure; this pressure increases by dilatation of afferent arterioles or constriction of efferent arterioles.
3- The pressure in Bowman's capsules (intra-capsular pressure); Glomerular filtration decreases with any increase in the intra-capsular pressure (re-absorption force).
4- The plasma proteins concentration; an increase in the plasma proteins concentration (e.g. in dehydration), decease GFR & vice versa.
5- The glomerular capillary permeability; this may be changed either by damage of capillary wall or abolishing the negative charges around there pores.

jane said...

JANE SINORITA TINGKAS
2006139385


HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCE OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


Small title:

1. Lung Cancer
2. Asthma
3. Tuberculosis
4. COPD

LUNG CANCER :

What is Lung cancer ?
a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis
Signs and symptoms :
dyspnea (shortness of breath)
hemoptysis (coughing up blood)
chronic coughing or change in regular coughing pattern
wheezing
chest pain or pain in the abdomen
cachexia (weight loss), fatigue, and loss of appetite
dysphonia (hoarse voice)
clubbing of the fingernails (uncommon)
dysphagia (difficulty swallowing).

Causes :
Smoking Cigarette :

smoke contains over 60 known carcinogens,including radioisotopes from the radon decay sequence, nitrosamine, and benzopyrene.
Additionally, nicotine appears to depress the immune response to malignant growths in exposed tissue.

Radon:
is a colorless and odorless gas generated by the breakdown of radioactive radium, which in turn is the decay product of uranium, found in the Earth's crust.
Radon exposure is the second major cause of lung cancer, after smoking.


Viruses :
are known to cause lung cancer in animals, and recent evidence suggests similar potential in humans. Implicated viruses include human papillomavirus,JC virus, simian virus 40 (SV40), BK virus, and cytomegalovirus.These viruses may affect the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis, allowing uncontrolled cell division.

Genetics :
lung cancer is initiated by activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes.
Oncogenes are genes that are believed to make people more susceptible to cancer.
Mutations in the K-ras proto-oncogene are responsible for 10–30%of lung adenocarcinomas.

TREATMENTS :

Treatment for lung cancer depends on the cancer's specific cell type, how far it has spread, and the patient's performance status.
Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

ASTHMA :

What is Asthma?
is a very common chronic disease involving the respiratory system in which the airways constrict, become inflamed, and are lined with excessive amounts of mucus, often in response to one or more triggers.
Symptoms :
dyspnea
wheezing
coughing
a tightness and itching of the chest or an inability for physical exertion.
shortness of breath and tightening of the lungs never wheeze or have stridor and their symptoms may be confused with a COPD-type disease.


Causes :
Environmental tobacco smoke.
Poor air quality
Caesarean sections
Psychological stress
Antibiotic use early in life has been linked to development of asthma in several examples; it is thought that antibiotics make one susceptible to development of asthma because they modify gut flora, and thus the immune system (as described by the hygiene hypothesis).
Genetics

TREATMENTS :

The most effective treatment for asthma is identifying triggers, such as pets or aspirin, and limiting or eliminating exposure to them.

If trigger avoidance is insufficient, medical treatment is available. Desensitization has been suggested as a possible cure.

Other forms of treatment include relief medication, prevention medication, long-acting β2-agonists, and emergency treatment


Long-acting bronchodilators (LABD) have much longer side chains resulting in a 12-hour effect
used to give a smoothed symptomatic relief (used morning and night).
While patients report improved symptom control, these drugs do not replace the need for routine preventers, and their slow onset.

TUBERCULOSIS:

Other names :
phthisis (Greek for consumption)
scrofula
tabes mesenterica, TB of the abdomen
lupus vulgaris, TB of the skin;
Pott's disease, or gibbus of the spine and joints.
Miliary tuberculosis (disseminated TB).

Symptoms:
Apetite loss
Fatigue
Chest pain
Coughing up blood
Productive, prolonged cough
Night sweats
pallor



Transmission

When people suffering from active pulmonary TB cough, sneeze, speak, or spit, they expel infectious aerosol droplets 0.5 to 5 µm in diameter.
A single sneeze can release up to 40,000 droplets.
Each droplets may transmit the disease, since the infectious dose of tuberculosis is very low and the inhalation of just a single bacterium can cause a new infection
by eating meat infected with TB. Mycobacterium bovis causes TB in cattle.


Treatment

TB uses antibiotics to kill the bacteria.
most commonly used antibiotics are rifampicin and isoniazid.
TB requires much longer periods of treatment (around 6 to 12 months) to entirely eliminate mycobacteria from the body.


COPD :
COPD-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease :
COPD is a progressive disease that makes it hard to breathe.

"Progressive" means the disease gets worse over time.
COPD can cause coughing that produces large amounts of mucus (a slimy substance), wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and other symptoms.
In contrast to asthma, the limitation of airflow is poorly reversible and usually gets progressively worse over time.
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD. Most people who have COPD smoke or used to smoke.
Long-term exposure to other lung irritants, such as air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust, also may contribute to COPD.


Signs and Symptoms :
Shortness of breath (dyspnea).
People with COPD typically first notice dyspnea during vigorous exercise when the demands on the lungs are greatest.
A persistent cough, sputum or mucus production, wheezing, chest tightness, and tiredness.

Treatment:
1) Quitting smoking.
2) Taking medications to dilate airways (bronchodilators) and decrease airway inflammation.
3) Vaccinating against flu influenza and pneumonia.
4) regular oxygen supplementation.5) pulmonary rehabilitation.

-THATS ALL-

terans said...

Human Respiration (Control of breathing

Prepared by:
Terans Bin Thadeus
2006111055
BIO 310

The major function of the lung is to get oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out.
Respiration failure occur when lung Inability to transfer oxygen and/or carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the blood.

Human Respiration
Consists of cellular respiration and gas exchange or breathing
Follows typical aerobic respiration
Without oxygen, anaerobic reispiration occurs and lactic acid forms in the muscles
Allows for gas exchange with the external environment
Nasal Cavity
Exposed to air through nostrils
Lined with ciliated (hairs) mucous membrane
Filters, warms, and moistens the air
On to the Pharynx
Pharynx
Where the oral and nasal cavity meet.
Epiglottis prevents food from entering the trachea

Larynx
Between the Pharynx and your Trachea is you larynx or voice box
From the Pharynx to the Trachea
Trachea
Conducts air between the pharynx and bronchi
Kept open by partial rings of cartilage
Line with a ciliated mucous membrane

Bronchi
Bronchi
Trachea splits into two (2) bronchi
Same composition as trachea

Bronchioles
Bronchi split up into many bronchiole:
lined mucous membrane but lack cartilage

Where does it all end up?
Bronchioles terminate at the alveoli:
Thin, moist, and surrounded by capillaries
This is where gas exchange takes place between the outside and the blood

Breathing
Caused by changing pressure in the chest cavity
Rate is affected by the amount of CO2 in the blood
Affects the medulla of the brain
It’s a feedback mechanism.

Neural control of breathing
Voluntary control: located in cerebral cortex.
Automatic control: pacemaker cells in medulla.
Final common path: motor neurons of respiratory muscles


How is does the pressure change in the chest cavity?
The diaphragm:
A shelf of muscle extending between the thorax and abdomen of mammals
In other words it is a muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity the expands and contracts.
When the diaphragm expands, in enlarges the chest cavity creating a low pressure inside the lungs which causes air to rush into the lungs
When the diaphragm contracts, in makes the chest cavity smaller, increasing the pressure, pushing air out of the lungs.
What happens to the oxygen?
Oxygen is carried by hemoglobin in a cell called oxyhemoglobin
Carbon dioxide is carried in the plasma of the blood in the form of a bicarbonate ion.

LUNG VOLUMES
Tidal Volume (Vt) – is the volume of air inspired or expired with each normal breath - 500 ml
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) – the extra volume of air that can be inspired over and above the normal tidal volume when the person inspires with full force – 3000ml

3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)– is the maximum extra volume of air that can be expired by forceful expiration after the end of the normal tidal expiration - 1100 ml

4. Residual Volume (RV) – the volume of air remaining in the lungs after the most forceful expiration – 1200ml
5. Vital capacity – is the sum of the inspiratory reverse volume,the tidal volume, and the expiratory reverse volume.(about 4600ml)

Rhythmic ventilation
The normal rate respiration in adults is between 12 and 20 respiration per minute.
In children, the rates are higher and may vary from 20 to 40 per minutes.
Ventilation controlled by neurons.
The rate of respiration is determined by the number of times respiratory muscles are stimulated.

FACTORS AFFECTING LUNG VOLUMES
Body build or physique
Position of the body
Strength of respiratory muscles
Pulmonary compliance

Malfunctions
Bronchitis:
Inflammation of the membrane of bronchial tubes caused by infection

Asthma
Allergic response characterized by constriction of bronchial tubes
Emphysema:
Change in the structure pf the lung characterized by enlargement or degeneration of the alveoli
Loss of elasticity and lung capacity
Caused by highly polluted air or cigarette smoke

vaverio said...

VAVERIO V. ATIN (2006147085)


(1)Define Osmoregulation
-osmoregulations is one of another type of homeostatic mechanism,osmoregulation works in our body to maintain the stability of our body fluid so that it would not become to concentrated nor too dilute.

(2) The function of Anti-diuresis hormone (ADH):
-ADH- is a type of hormone which stimulates the kidney to take up or absorb more water.the more ADH present in kidney the more harder the kidney would work to absorb water

kadim said...

Male reproductive system
Anatomy of the Male reproductive system
Physiology of the Male reproductive system

Anatomy of the Male reproductive system


 Most species have two sexes: male and female.
 Each sex has its own unique reproductive system.
 They are different in shape and structure,
 but both are specifically designed to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm.


• whose sex organs are located entirely within the pelvis.
• the male has reproductive organs, or genitals that are both inside and outside the pelvis.
• The male genitals include:
 the testicles
 the duct system, which is made up of the epididymis and the vas deferens
 the accessory glands, which include the seminal vesicles and prostate gland
 the penis

 sexual maturity, the two testicles or testes produce and store millions of tiny sperm cells.
 The testicles are oval-shaped and grow to be about 2 inches (5 centimeters) in length and 1 inch (3 centimeters) in diameter.
 The testicles are also part of the endocrine system because they produce hormones, including testosterone.

Testosterone
 major part of puberty in guys, and as a guy makes his way through puberty, his testicles produce more and more of it.
 Testosterone is the hormone that causes guys to develop deeper voices, bigger muscles, and body and facial hair, and it also stimulates the production of sperm.







The scrotum
scrotum
 is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles.
 an extension of the abdomen,
 located between the penis and anus.
 the base of the scrotum becomes covered with pubic hair at puberty.

Function
 to be to keep the testis at a temperature slightly lower than that of the rest of the body.
 For the human, a temperature should be one or two degrees below the body temperature - 36.8 degrees Celsius (98 degrees Fahrenheit);
 higher temperatures may be damaging to sperm count.

 The temperature is controlled by moving the testicles closer to the abdomen when it is cold, and away when hot.
 The volume of sperm produced by the testes is small, (0.1-0.2ml). It has been suggested that if testes were situated within the abdominal cavity that they would be subjected to the regular changes in abdominal pressure that is exerted by the abdominal muscles.
Testes
• The testes hang outside the abdominal cavity of the male within the scrotum.
• This is required for the production of sperm because internal body temperatures are too high to produce viable sperm.
• The male gonads, testes, or testicles, begin their development high in the abdominal cavity, near the kidneys.
• Although this location of the testes, outside the abdominal cavity, may seem to make them vulnerable to injury, it provides a temperature about 3° C below normal body temperature.
• This lower temperature is necessary for the production of viable sperm.

 Like the ovaries (to which they are homologous), testicles are components of both the reproductive system (being gonads) and the endocrine system (being endocrine glands). The respective functions of the testicles are;
 producing sperm (spermatozoa)
 producing male sex hormones of which testosterone is the best-known
 Both functions of the testicle, sperm-forming and endocrine, are under control of gonadotropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary:
 luteinizing hormone (LH)
 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Male duct system
• The Wolffian duct (also known as archinephric duct, Leydig's duct, mesonephric duct, or nephric duct) is a paired organ found in mammals including humans during embryogenesis.
• It connects the primitive kidney Wolffian body (or mesonephros) to the cloaca and serves as the anlage for certain male reproductive organs.
• In a male, it develops into a system of connected organs between the testis and the prostate, namely the rete testis, the efferent ducts, the epididymis, the vas deferens,and the seminal vesicle. The prostate forms from the urogenital sinus.
• For this it is critical that the ducts are exposed to testosterone during embryogenesis. Testosterone binds to and activates androgen receptor, affecting intracellular signals and modifying the expression of numerous genes.
• In the mature male, the function of this system is to store and mature sperm, and provide accessory semen fluid





Accessory glands semen
Semen
 is fluid from the accessory glands that combines with sperm from the testes.
 When released during intercourse, semen is called the ejaculate and is normally 3 to 5 milliliters in volume and contains approximately 200 to 500 million spermatozoa.
 actual sperm counts can vary the seminal fluid volume will stay the same.

Physiology of the Male reproductive system
Male sexual response
• four stage model of sexual response, which they described as the human sexual response cycle. They defined the four stages of this cycle as:
 Excitement phase (initial arousal)
 Plateau phase (at full arousal, but not yet at orgasm)
 Orgasm
 Resolution phase (after orgasm)

Sexual response in the aging person
• it takes older men longer to become aroused and they typically require more direct genital stimulation, and the speed and amount of vaginal lubrication tends to diminish with age as well
• they noted that many older men and women are perfectly capable of excitement and orgasm well into their seventies and beyond, a finding that has been confirmed in population based epidemiological research on sexual function in the elderly




Spermatogenesis
• Spermatogenesis is the process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa.
• Spermatozoa are the mature male gametes in many sexually reproducing organisms.
• Thus, spermatogenesis is the male version of gametogenesis. In mammals it occurs in the male testes and epididymis in a stepwise fashion, and for humans takes approximately 64 days.
• Spermatogenesis is highly dependent upon optimal conditions for the process to occur correctly, and is essential for sexual reproduction.
• It starts at puberty and usually continues uninterrupted until death, although a slight decrease can be discerned in the quantity of produced sperm with increase in age.

• Spermatogenesis produces mature male gametes, commonly called sperm but specifically known as spermatozoa,
• which are able to fertilize the counterpart female gamete, the oocyte, during conception to produce a single-celled individual known as a zygote.
• This is the cornerstone of sexual reproduction and involves the two gametes both contributing half the normal set of chromosomes (haploid) to result in a chromosomally normal (diploid) zygote.









Hormonal resolution of male reproductive system

aishaiah said...

FEMALE REPRODUCTION SYSTEM

What Is the Female Reproductive System?
 The female reproductive system consists of the paired ovaries and oviducts, the uterus, vagina, (collectively, the ovaries and duct system are known as the internal genitalia, positioned within the pelvic cavity).

function..
 The female reproductive system functions to synthesis the female gametes, ova; produce the sex hormones estrogens and progesterone; and provide a protective environment in which the embryo develops until birth.
Structure of female reproduction system…

Vagina
 The vagina is a fibro muscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female mammals, or to the cloaca in female birds and some reptiles. Female insects and other invertebrates also have a vagina, which is the terminal part of the oviduct.

Cervix
 The cervix is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall.
Uterus
 The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina; the other is connected on both sides to the fallopian tubes.
Uterus
 The uterus is a pear-shaped muscular organ. Its major function is to accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo, develops into a fetus and gestates until child birth. If the egg does not embed in the wall of the uterus, a woman gets her period and the egg is flushed away.
Oviducts
 The Fallopian tubes or oviducts are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus.
 On maturity of an ovum, the follicle and the ovary's wall rupture, allowing the ovum to escape and enter the Fallopian tube.
Oviducts
 There it travels toward the uterus, pushed along by movements of cilia on the inner lining of the tubes. This trip takes hours or days. If the ovum is fertilized while in the Fallopia tube, then it normally implants in the endometrium when it reaches the uterus, which signals the beginning of pregnancy.

Ovaries
 The ovaries are the place inside the female body where ova or eggs are produced. The process by which the ovum is released is called ovulation. The speed of ovulation is periodic and impacts directly to the length of a menstrual cycle.
Ovaries
 After ovulation, the ovum is captured by the oviduct, after traveling down the oviduct to the uterus, occasionally being fertilized on its way by an incoming sperm, leading to pregnancy and the eventual birth of a new human being.
 The Fallopian tubes are often called the oviducts and they have small hairs (cilia) to help the egg cell travel.